The bomb H

The nuclear bombs are regarded as the most destroying machines which exist. The current weapons develop powers from 8 to 40 times higher than that of Little servant boy and Fat man, the bombs which destroyed Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

The bomb was developed on July 16, 1945 in Almogordo, in New Mexico.
One can say that before this bomb, the principe of the explosion rested on fast combustion or the decomposition of a chemical. After this bomb, one exploits the Plutonium 239 or Uranium 235 rupture.

The bomb H was developed in November 1952. It uses hydrogen lighter than uranium or plutonium. It can develop a power equivalent of 1 000 tons to 100 000 tons of TNT (trinitrotoluene).
The lightness of hydrogen was exploited in order to strongly reduce the size of this bomb. One thus could produce shells for artillery, or of small missiles for portable launchers.
Moreover, this reduced size can make it possible to reach dispersed targets, because the rockets can thus be armed with several heads.

One thus passes from terrifying weapons of dissuasion by the destruction, with weapons much strategic and tactical. I.e. that in front of the number of States having the nuclear force, the important thing is not any more the use, but manner of using them.


Andre´ Sakharov

Soviet physicist and political dissenting, born on May 21, 1921 and deceased on December 14, 1989, in Moscow. He was with Alexandre Soljenitsyne the most remarkable figure of political dissidence in the USSR.

Andre´ Dmitrievitch Sakharov was born in a family where physics had already a broad place following the many publications of popularization of his father. Thus, at 17, he starts studies of physics at the university of Moscow. He's exempted of military service because of his intellectual faculties, service which he would have of achieving in 1941, at the time of the German invasion of the USSR.
He obtains in 1942 a licence, which enables him to become engineer in a factory of ammunition in the basin of the Volga. The second world war forces to him to help, between the summer and the autumn 1943, of the carpenters of Kovrov. He however leaves his post of engineer only in 1945, to prepare a doctorate, which he takes down in 1947.

From 1948 to 1956, he will carry out, with Igor Yevgenyevich Tamm, who will become Nobel Prize of physics in 1958, of research on nuclear fusion, and the ordered thermonuclear reaction (thermonuclear reaction of the hydrogen isotopes for the production of electrical energy or the production of fuel for the nuclear engines). They collaborate in the development of the bomb H in November 1952. Thus, Sakharov becomes member of the Soviet academy of sciences in 1953.

From 1961, he denounces the dangers of the radioactivity, and tries to persuade the USSR not to proceed to the series of tests envisaged of the bomb H in atmosphere. He obtains a partial victory in 1963, at the time of the signature of the international Treaty against the nuclear tests in atmosphere.

In 1968, he gives up any scientific activity, in favour of the disarmament and the international control of the nuclear weapons. The same year, he publishes Thoughts on progress, coexistence and intellectual freedom.
He joined this same year dissidence, while at the same time Brejnev attacks and sends many dissidents to with it to Gulag. He fights thus for the respect of the humans right, and goes even until creating, in 1970, a committee of the humans right and of political defense of the victims, with the assistance of ValÚry Chaldidze and Andre´ Tvedorkhlebov, then later Igor Shafarevitch and Podypolski.

He obtains in 1975 the Nobel Prize of peace, but he's not authorized by the government of Moscow to leave the USSR for Oslo, in Norway, where the price must be given to him. He will send to its place Elenna Bonner, who he met in 1969 and married in 1970. She will make the speech in his place.

During the Seventies, one often speaks about group S.O.S : it acts of the agreement and the collaboration of the three physicists Sakharov, Orlov and Sharansky.

In 1979, he denounces the Soviet intervention in Afghanistan. His privileges and functions are then withdrawn to him, and from 1980 to 1986, he's placed at Gorki under house arrest by the KGB.
He's rehabilitated in 1988 per Gorbatchev.
In April 1989, he's elected with the new congress of the deputies of the people, where he will hold a role of active defender of the human rights and reforms political and economic.

He dies on December 14, 1989.

Sources :
Microsoft Encarta 2002 - WikipÚdia - www.nobel-paix.ch
Thanks Florian !