In 1997, the protocol of Kyoto asked the richer couintries to reduce their production of greenhouse effect gases but it wasn't activated : it had to be ratified by 55 countries representing 55 % of the global production in 1990. The President Bush always prevent his country from ratifying the protocol. We had to wait the begin of year 2005 and the ratification by Russia.
Finaly, the protocol entered in force on February 16, 2005 and it forces the countries which have signed to produce in 2012 5.2 % of greenhouse effect gases less than in 1990. In Europe, a « stock exchange of CO2 » has been created. Let's do the point about its working :

1) Each country gives its enterprises a number of « quotas ». The repartition (called national plan of allocation of quotas) must be approved of by the EU. A quota is a tonne of CO2 that the enterprise has the right to produce.
2) If an enterprise produces less of CO2 that it can, she can sell the unused quotas to an other enterprise which exceed its own quotas (so, the more polluting enterprises give money to the less polluting).
3) The not governmental organizations have the right to buy quotas too. So, they remove them from the market and cancel them, in order to reduce the global production.
4) The respect of quotas is checked in April. If an enterprise has produced more CO2 that it could, it pays 40 € by additional tonne and its following quota is reduced.
5) The national plan of allocation of quotas will be reduced en 2007 and then every five years.

Here is a concrete example :
The Nederlands have helped Rio de Janeiro to buy installations of gases' processing in a rubbish tip (Nova Iguaçu). The methane (35 times more noxious than CO2) produced by the rubbish tip is salvaged. So, Rio de Janeiro reduces its production of gases and produce electricity. The reduction of methane's production is equivalent to 670,000 tonnes of CO2 sald to Nederlands for 3.35 € the tonne.

According to Sciences et Avenir 698 and 699, Aril-May, 2005.